Muslims in the West face a number of challenges. Some of these are real, others are perceived to be real. Bringing up children and maintaining our identities is a real challenge. Holding onto Islamic values in an ideological society that works to undermine these values is another. Recently, Muslim communities have faced an onslaught, undermining Islamic beliefs and practices. Some have responded by standing firm like Abdullah ibn Masud (ra), who stood firm against the violence inflicted by Quraysh, whilst others have buckled under pressure, seeking solutions contrary to the Ahkaam Shari’ah, to save themselves and their communities.
In my previous article I argued that the raft of government anti-terror laws is one such ‘perceived challenge’. In that although governments in the West were unveiling laws after laws, this was less about security and more about preparing their populations and instilling fear amongst Muslims. I argued that the carriers of da’wah in the West and activists should be careful choosing when and how to address these laws so as not to fall into a trap set by these governments. The more they are spoken of, the more we become agents of fear and bearers of bad news. Indeed, these laws illustrate the opposite. They demonstrate the desperation of these governments and their realisation that the return of the Rightly Guided Khilafah is now a reality that cannot be reversed.
It is noticeable that a number of hitherto staunch callers of da’wah have been distracted by the sheer number of challenges we face in the West, real or perceived. These challenges have overburdened them in terms of work. Some have argued Khilafah is no longer relevant. Others argue Khilafah is one of many aspects of da’wah whilst others argue it no longer remains an active call of Muslims in the West, instead we should address the multiplicity of problems the communities face. The matter has come to a point where in many Muslim communities the call for Khilafah has become secondary, yet paradoxically it is at its height internationally reaching the thrones of the dictators that litter the Muslim world.
In reality, the challenges Muslims face in the West are not unique. They are challenges Muslims face equally around the world. In all societies, Muslim or other, the Ummah faces a number of impediments that obstruct them from living an Islamic way of life. Furthermore, a host of un-Islamic thoughts and emotions present challenges for all righteous Muslims, wherever they reside. A Muslim father in Amman faces the challenge of bringing up his son or daughter in an Islamic way, like a father in New York and London. The school curriculum in Karachi faces the same pressures of ‘westernisation’ and interference faced by schools in Birmingham. Muslims in Alexandria have faced draconian anti-terror laws for decades just as Muslims in Brussels experience them today. Indeed to show signs of ‘piety’ in Cairo, places you automatically under suspicion, as do sisters wearing hijab on the Paris Metro. The media in Tunis defames Islam like the media in all European capitals. To claim there is a unique reality in the West that demands a different da’wah stands clearly against the reality of the world today.
The demands facing Muslims around the world are the same and stem from a singular problem; namely, the absence of the implementation of Islam and the Islamic way of life in thought and method. This is why the duty to re-establish the Khilafah state is the highest collective obligation (fard-Kifaya) and the primary duty of all Islamic groups. The absence of this work is a sin upon all Muslims, whether they live in London or Lagos, Texas or Tehran. This has been proven by the overwhelming evidence from Qur’an and Sunnah and is the highest obligation of all Islamic groups, east or west. Allah سبحانه وتعالى says,
“And let there arise out of you a group inviting to all that is good (Islam), enjoining the ma’roof and forbidding the munkar. And it is they who are successful.”
Allah here obliged the Muslims, as a collective duty, to have at least one group whose work will be the call to the khayr (Islam) and enjoining the ma’rouf (good) and forbidding the munkar (evil).
What is ordered is not any group but a group from amongst the Muslims, whose work has been described in the noble ayah as being the da’wah to the khayr (Islam) and enjoining the ma’roof and forbidding the munkar. This description includes the ruler because he, in terms of the reality, represents the head of every ma’roof and the head of every munkar. When the ruler implements a ma’roof, we all feel its greatness and likewise when he applies a munkar we all suffer from it. It is from this perspective that the group takes the description of being political, because its work relates to the rulers. If these Islamic rulers are absent then reestablishing them becomes an imperative, or forcing them to the truth and confining them to it if they had existed and then deviated from the truth.
The Messenger ﷺ clarified the link between this fard and the ruler, and its importance in many ahadeeth. For instance he ﷺ said,
“By the One in Whose hands my soul rests, you have to enjoin the ma’roof and forbid the munkar, otherwise Allah will be about to send upon you a punishment from Him, then you would pray to Him but He would not answer you.”[Reported by Ahmad and Tirmidhi]
“The master of martyrs is Hamza, and a man who stood up to a tyrant ruler to enjoin (the good) and forbid (the evil) and was killed.” [Reported by al-Haakim]
The priority of work for Muslims in the West
As for the priority of work of this group, that is which maroof to call people to and which munkar to forbid, it is clear from observing the entire world that the absence of Khilafah and a Khalifah who implements Islam is the highest order of obligations. Because the symptoms, that is the absence of the many rules of Islam and the plague of Kufr and haram that inflicts us, stems from this absence of Islam and its rules from the state and societal level. Whether you are in the west or east, this fundamental reality remains the same.
As for the import ‘calling to the khair’, this is the da’wah to non-Muslims. In the Islamic world the reality of life is the majority are Muslims. In the non-Islamic world, the carrying of da’wah to non-Muslims becomes a natural part of the work and should occupy some of the priority of the da’wah carriers who wish to fulfill the obligation of this ayah.
How do you work for Khilafah practically in the West?
Some reach the stage of accepting the obligation of Khilafah yet fail to realise its work practically. Calling for Khilafah is not by merely reiterating the word every so often or by aspiring to or yearning for its return, like the Greeks yearn for a lost civilization. Rather, working for Khilafah requires actual work not merely the occasional speech or the occasional dua. This is because it is a vital issue, a matter of immense gravity.
Essentially the work for Khilafah is a da’wah. It is to call the Muslims to two matters.
Firstly it is to address the rules of the Islamic fikrah and tariqah (thought and method) with the Muslims so as to convince the Muslims of the applicability of Islam as a system. A carrier of the da’wah addresses Islam as a series of societal solutions, demonstrating the rules of Islam sufficient to building a conviction that only Islam solves problems. This requires knowledge, acquired by studying Islam in deep halaqaat (circles) so as to explain Islam as a live ideological alternative to the Muslims. In the West, such an alternative would be even more appealing, as Muslims sense and feel the injustice of the liberal capitalist system.
Secondly this work requires revealing the political plans against the Muslims. This duty requires an intimate knowledge of international politics, such that the da’wah carrier is able to explain how the great powers work against this Ummah and how only a true Islamic state can rebalance the world order. A da’wah carrier, east or west, needs to pursue intensely the news and show with clarity what is happening to this Ummah so as to reveal the reality of the world in the absence of Allah’s Deen.
In the West, Muslims live in fact in diverse societies, where Muslims come from all over the world as students, workers and residents allowing for the continuous flow of ideas. Furthermore, resident Muslim communities have regular contacts and indeed influence with people from their countries of origin. In London alone, an average Muslim can meet with ease Muslims from the political and economic elites of the Islamic world, sometimes with more ease than Muslims in those very countries can. Furthermore, the ‘flat world’ in which we live allows communications between peoples, enabling Muslims in the West to contribute to disseminating this global idea. A Muslim community in the West that practically works for Khilafah, would mark an important ingredient to this work, echoing with one voice the demands of all Muslims.
The danger of calling for partial solutions or reform
Some, who have detached themselves from the Shari’ah methodology, have sought to claim Muslims in the West should concentrate on the partial solutions. Thus building mosques or setting up charity work becomes the focus of their attention. Working on education projects or addressing the media assault on Islam demands their attention above and beyond the calling practically for Khilafah. In reality some of these are individual obligations, for Muslims living east or west and a Muslim would be sinful if he or she failed to pray, fast, look after their children, bury their dead or provide a mosque in their community. All of these duties require attention, but they should not detract one from the work of reestablishing the Khilafah State.
Likewise, it is believed that the Muslims in the West suffer from a lack of Islamicadab (ethics) or general Islamic knowledge and so many preachers have setup classes, courses and schools to remedy this in order to reform the Islamic character. It is true that the lack of knowledge is a problem, but this is not limited to the west. Indeed the lack of knowledge is more pronounced in many Islamic countries where governments have worked to erase Islam from the lives of ordinary people, such as in Uzbekistan. The reform of the Islamic character on a societal level can truly be realised only in an ideological society. And such a society can only be realised with the construction of a formidable Islamic Khilafah State. This is what the Shar’iah demands. The methodology of Islam does not change due to the time and place.
The daw’ah today must be carried like the da’wah of the Messenger ﷺ in its general and specific details without any deviation. It is this da’wah that shook the pillars of Quraish, that shook the thrones of the Romans and the Persians and it is this same da’wah that we must carry today, east or west. Our singular conviction, in reestablishing the rightly guided Khilafah hinges upon a commitment that only by living according to the priority Allah سبحانه وتعالى has set that we truly can worship him over our desires and biases. Disobedience to Allah سبحانه وتعالى in the general and specific requirements of carrying da’wah will not only hinder our progress in this life, but provide a barrier between ourselves and Allah سبحانه وتعالى on that day where we shall all account for our deeds.
“Say, [O Muhammad], “If your fathers, your sons, your brothers, your wives, your relatives, wealth which you have obtained, commerce wherein you fear decline, and dwellings with which you are pleased are more beloved to you than Allah and His Messenger and jihad in His cause, then wait until Allah executes His command. And Allah does not guide the defiantly disobedient people.””
My question is about the repercussions of shooting down the Russian plane: Will it lead to an escalation of the air force in the airspace of Syria? Will it extend to the airspace of Turkey? Thank you.
1. As for the airspace of Syria:
– If what you mean by the escalation is that the warplanes patrol the airspace of Syria and bomb its territory, including humans, trees, and stone, this is already taking place, and the aircrafts put every effort into that.
– But if what you mean by escalation is that these aircrafts clash with each other and start an air war between them, this is unlikely, at least in the foreseeable future for the reasons that we have mentioned in our publication on 11/10/2015 and theQ&A on 18/11/2015.
2. As for the extension of escalation into Turkish airspace, it is as if you mean that an air war will begin between Russia and Turkey, that the Russian aircrafts attack Turkish aircrafts in retaliation to the shooting down of the Russian plane… If that is what you mean then the answer also is unlikely, at least in the foreseeable future for the following reasons:
– The Russian air intervention in Syria was in agreement with the United States, and the current Turkish regime is America’s agent and therefore it could not breach an agreement held by America.
– The evidences of the agreement is apparent and we have explained it in our publication and the Q&A mentioned above… and Putin revealed this when he said in Sochi on Tuesday November 24, describing the shooting down of the aircraft accident as “a stab in the back” Radio Sawa 24/11/2015 CE. This means that a signed agreement was breached.
– It is likely that the aircraft was shot down without a decision of the Turkish political leadership but of the leaders in the military with political objectives which they differ in with Erdogan in addition to the feeling of protection over what they witnessed of the Russian bombing of their Turkmen brothers on their borders.
This is what appears between the lines but is clear from the lines, in a statement of the Turkish Prime Minister, “The Turkish Prime Minister Ahmed Davutoglu, for his part, elaborated that the Turkish Armed Forces’ decision to shoot down the Russian plane came out of border protection…” (Radio Sawa, 24/11/2015)
– Russia is probably aware of this, that the Turkish government has not violated the agreement. This is not the first time that Russian aircraft penetrates the borders of Turkey, and they were not prevented by the Turkish government. Russia’s realization that the shooting down of aircraft was not by a political decision of the government but it is from some military leaders that make it accommodating of the matter, and then exclude the war between Russia and Turkey… And it is expected that things will be settled through political means to save face for all parties; through trade or diplomatic relations or mediation or intensifying Russian attacks in areas where the plane was shot down, or so, for retaliation. This may be America’s main role, especially on the subject of the army‘s discipline… In addition to finding exits to explain where and how the plane was shot down to satisfy both parties. An American official said yesterday 24/11/2015, “Washington believes that the plane was hit inside Syrian airspace after it moved briefly in the Turkish airspace, according to an assessment based on the thermal trace of the plane.” (Deutsche Welle, 25/11/2015). Here they satisfy both sides!
– As we said in the answer “at least in the foreseeable future,” according to the factors present, otherwise the interference of military actions with political actions makes the possibility of fluctuations in the events and their consequences likely.
– Finally, what is painful is that despite the fact these are Islamic countries, but it is the colonialists Kuffar and their agents that control the events and results over them! However, the tables will turn, and soon Allah willing, the light of the Khilafah will shine over the land of Islam, and even extend to the corners of the earth, and the enemies of Islam will return defeated to their own home… that is if they will have a home then.
وَلَتَعْلَمُنَّ نَبَأَهُ بَعْدَ حِينٍ
“You will come to know what it is talking about after a while.”
The Syrian airspace, especially after Russia’s brutal aggression on Syria, has become a militarily arena for American, Russian, Syrian and other aircrafts, in addition to the military conflict on the ground. Successively, the political talks have escalated in Vienna 1, Vienna 2 and Vienna 3 in addition to the side talks… My question is why hasn’t there been a military clash between these aircrafts in the air even though they are carried out by different countries? And why was this military escalation accompanied by a political escalation? Finally, what is the expected solution to the issue of Syria? Will the Paris attacks on Friday 13/11/2015 that took place three hours before the Vienna talks on 14/11/2015, affect the solution to the issue of Syria? Or are they irrelevant and that the synchronization of events was a coincidence? Please provide me, without delving into deep political analysis, with a simple answer easy for me and the general public to understand, Jazak Allah Khair.
I will begin from where you ended your question. If what you meant by simplifying the answer for it to be clear without confusion or ambiguity, and with clear indications and not shrouded in inference or so … However this is what distinguishes our publications, whether it is a leaflet, or a statement or an answer to a question. But if what you mean by simplification is not to consider the introductions to issues and their backgrounds, and not to explain its reality and its causes, then this does not occur in political crisis, because the answer must be built on information with the most likely validity or accuracy. It would not be accurate if the reality is not studied thoroughly and the motives and its causes and relevant evidences… otherwise the answer would be superficial or based on whims, and this is avoided in our publications. However we are keen in having the correct and straightforward answer to the best of our ability. Perhaps after reading this answer, you may see the sincerity and correctness of our answer, Allah willing. This is the answer to the branches of your question:
First, the subject of no clashes:
Yes, the states differ in their names and locations, but have the same and one mark on the subject of the Syrian crisis, and even their lines are organized, here are the details:
As for the regime in Syria, it is a loyal agent to America, both in the reigns of Bashar and his father. It preserves America’s interests and the interests of the Jewish state… and the withdrawal of Hafez from the Golan Heights and handing it over to the Jews, then making it a safe zone for Jews for about forty years, and the participation of the regime in America’s coalition during the second Gulf War in 1991, and then the talks and conspiracies run by America in the region and the regime becomes one of its instruments which is fully controlled and disciplined by the American policy… All of which makes the Syrian flight operations of aggression on the people as part of the American policy thus it does not approach the US aircraft, but carries out its mission within a drawn line. And what was published over the past year at the start of the US military coalition’s operations in Syria is that the regime was notified of the operations, this saves any further clarification.
As for the Russian aggression against Syria, it is by an agreement with the United States and the coordination between the two side’s planes, we have explained it in our publication on the subject dated 11/10/2015, and I will quote from it what is relevant: [This was a disaster for America as it had presented itself as being with the revolutionaries and as such it would be difficult to fight against them openly. They were bringing serious harm onto the regime whilst the American replacement had not yet matured. This then is where the dirty hellish ploy of Russia undertaking its task came to play. Its role is to support the regime openly and to oppose the revolutionaries openly whilst being at war with them is justified in their view. This is whilst the regime was prepared to summon Russia through American instruction and this is exactly what came to pass… As such Russia agreed to play this evil dirty role in Syria in service to America! …
The Russian air assaults by air, sea and even by land through their bases and consultants is being undertaken in coordination with America… then every sane person comprehends that if the planes of the two states are circling in the same sky, this means that it is happening either through coordination between them as two friends or it means that there is a war taking place between two enemies where they are clashing with one another and pelting each other with missiles like the reality of any other war. However they are two friends who are coordinating the skies between them in order to accomplish one single objective and not two different ones. Statements that have been made by the two sides confirm such coordination. The Russian Foreign Ministry said in a statement it published upon its internet site on Thursday 08/10/2015, “In line with the authorisation of the Russian President Putin and his American counterpart President Barack Obama at the end of their meeting on the sidelines of the UN General Conference, the two respective foreign ministers sought to finalise discussing the ways of settling the situation in Syria, which from one angle includes the necessity to avoid accidents happening in the sky above Syria in addition to strengthening the political settlement in Syria in accordance to the Geneva declaration on 30/06/2012”. The statement added that the two ministers: “Also sought to present steps for implementing the Minsk agreements in respect to Ukraine that was signed on the 12th of February…” (Al-Hayat: Electronic copy, Wednesday 7 October 2015)... [End of quote], and I add:
Russia’s aggression on Syria in 30/9/2015 directly preceded the Obama-Putin meeting on 29/9/2015, and the meeting lasted 90 minutes; the Ukraine crisis has occupied the first part of it, while the two presidents focused on the situation in Syria in the remaining part. The results of this meeting were seen immediately “on 30/9/2015 the Russian Federation Council agreed unanimously on Putin’s request to use the Russian Air Force in Syria.” (Russia Today, 30/9/2015)
Even the sites that were hit by Russia in Syria were mostly in agreement with America, CNN reported on 4/10/2015: “Gen. Andrei Kartapolov, the military official in the leadership of the Russian Army General Staff said on Saturday evening 3/10/2015: The areas that have been targeted by the Russian air force in Syria were introduced to Moscow as areas harboring terrorists only, by the US military command. The official continued to say as quoted by the Russian agency Tass: “The United States of America notified us via common connections that no one exists but the terrorists in these areas.””
The strong coordination between the Russian and American aircraft in the skies of Syria has been even described as training: “The US Department of Defense, Pentagon announced on Tuesday 3/11/2015 that the Americans and the Russians tested successfully a mechanism allowing their pilots who carry out operations in Syrian airspace to communicate directly to avoid any accidents. Pentagon spokesman Geoff Davis said that the American fighter jet “conducted a communications test on Tuesday, which was prepared with the Russian fighter jet” in Syrian airspace, pointing out that the test lasted “three Minutes “and” achieved its objectives “…. For its part, Russian news agencies said, citing a general in the Russian armed forces saying that the US and Russian air forces have conducted joint training in Syria on Tuesday.” (Al-Arabiya Net, 03/11/2015)
Accordingly, the US and Russian aircraft fly in a safe air space from all parties: the American aircrafts bombs Syria with the knowledge of the tyrant regime, the Russian aircrafts bombs Syria with the knowledge of the Syrian regime as well… and the Russian aircrafts roam the skies in Syria in agreement with the United States, and full coordination between the US and Russian air forces… Thus, their collision is out of the question because those who roam Syrian airspace are close allies, their target is Islam and Muslims:
قَاتَلَهُمُ اللَّهُ أَنَّى يُؤْفَكُونَ
“May Allah destroy them; how are they deluded?”
If the harmony between them ends then their collision will be probable.
Second: Accompanying political actions with the military operation:
As is it is known, the regime in Syria is a humiliated agent to America, which considers Syria as the area of its influence that serves its interests, and it is now aware that Bashar has fallen or almost is in a position that compromises his service to the interests of American service, it is looking for an alternative agent to succeed him, and is afraid that he is toppled before it can find a successor… That is why they support him in various ways, including the military actions to achieve two things:
Firstly: To support the tyrant Bashar and prevent his fall before America finds the alternative successor agent to the former agent, and to prevent the occurrence of a vacuum being filled in a way not according to America’s calculations…
Secondly: To continue with the successive pressure on the people of Syria to accept the alternative made by America from the coalition and factions that they call “moderate”, and some of the regime’s aides.
That is why there are diverse methods in the military actions led by the United States in Syria, whether belonging to Iran or to its party or to its collaborators or to Russian forces recently, and all are for this purpose, which is to create the atmosphere for a political action to achieve America’s interest in the first degree, and consolation to Russia for an easing of sanctions and the issue of Ukraine… Hence there was the escalation in military actions to create the political climate. And following up on the events of this matter, this will be seen clearly; there were successive meetings together with the military actions:
– On October 23/10/ 2015, the first Quartet (Russia and the United States, Saudi Arabia and Turkey) meeting was convened. “The Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov said, “The participants in the Saudi Russian, American, Turkey quartet meeting in Vienna on Friday, 23 October, agreed on the external support for the political process in Syria… and stated that all ministers agreed on the need to preserve Syria as united, secular, and sovereign.” Kerry described the meeting of the four ministers in Vienna as “constructive and fruitful”. Kerry said that Tehran may receive a proposal to join the negotiations of settlement of the Syrian crisis, according to Bloomberg news agency from the American official…” (Russia Today, 23/10/2015).
– On the evening of 29/10/2015, the Quartet’s second meeting was held, “It finished in Vienna on Thursday night / Friday 30/10/2015, the meeting of the Quartet gathered the foreign ministers of Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Russia and the United States on ways to find political solution to end the crisis in Syria, without any statement s by the four ministers to the media at the end of the meeting… and the US Secretary of State, John Kerry, met with his Iranian counterpart, Mohammad Javad Zarif, and said that the Vienna talks will not lead to immediate political solution, but it may be the best chance to save Syria from hell.”(Al-Arabiya Net, 29/10/2015)
It is noticeable here America is keen to conduct the meetings with its alliances and followers, Russia, Turkey, Saudi Arabia and Iran, in order to complete the group, and then proceed with the American plans without the disruptions of Europe! It was keen to invite Iran to the meetings: “America announced on 27/10/2015 that it has been invited Iran to attend the conference in Vienna, and the spokeswoman of the Iranian Foreign Ministry, Murdhiya Afkham, declared immediately, saying: “We have received the invitation, and it was decided that the Foreign Minister will participate in the talks.” (The Middle East, 28/10/2015). Not only that, America tried to exclude Europe from the first meetings and even get rid of the European disruptions during the negotiations and that the negotiations continue in the presence of its alliances and its followers, and this annoyed France, and as a reaction its foreign minister was invited to a working dinner on 27/10/2015. Fabius said that a “working dinner” will be held at the headquarters of the Foreign Ministry in the presence of “France’s partners in dealing with the Syrian crisis,” and he added that the meeting will discuss ways for the political transition for a united, democratic Syria respectful of all components of the people, as well as support our war on terrorism.” But America was not interested as it sent its Deputy Secretary of State, Tony Blinken, instead of John Kerry.” (BBC, 27/10/2015). It is apparent that the French meeting was just an attempt to reserve a seat in the negotiations in Vienna.
America almost succeeded in continuing the exclusion of Europe if it wasn’t for the outbreak of the Syrian refugee crisis and the transition of its effects to the heart of Europe, it was even said that the refugee crisis made the Europeans forget the Greece crisis. And it was focused upon in the European media during the last four months, particularly from Britain and France, and the crisis has escalated in Europe, and became the reason for Europe especially France and Britain, to be involved in the Syrian crisis. The European presence became inevitable in the meetings regarding the Syrian crisis, however, it is clear to the observer that the real talks are between America and its alliances and its followers “Russia, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and Iran.”
– On 30/10/ 2015 a large meeting of the seventeen countries was held and Europe took part in it as well as other countries… as well as the United Nations representatives, the European Union, and the Arab League… but it was known that the actual leader in the course of the meetings is America and alliances and its followers!.
One of the highlights reported about this meeting: “The new negotiations on the Syrian crisis in Vienna began this morning with the participation of about twenty… including Iran, in an effort to reach a political solution to end the crisis and ensure the departure of Assad through a transitional phase.. and in the meeting and many delegations participated from the United States, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, China, Britain, Germany, France, Italy, Lebanon, Iran, Jordan, Qatar, Egypt, Oman, Iraq and the UAE, along with the United Nations and the European Union. This is the first talks on Syria, involving Iran along with global and regional powers seeking to resolve the Syrian crisis.”(Al-Jazeera Net, 30/10/2015). This meeting was closer to a meeting to satisfy, especially to Europe… and it was announced that the next meeting will be held in two weeks.
– On 14/11/2015 a meeting was held and in its statement contained: “The statement said that representatives of the 17 countries in addition to the European Union, the United Nations and the Arab League agreed during the Vienna meeting on a specific timetable for the formation of a transitional government in Syria within six months and to hold elections within 18 months despite the continuing dispute over the fate of Bashar al-Assad. The Vienna International meeting began on Saturday, in the presence of the United States and Russia, in an effort to find a political solution to the conflict in Syria against the backdrop of unprecedented attacks in Paris and disagreements regarding the fate of Bashar al-Assad, based on a diplomatic source. This is the second international meeting within 15 days; it comes hours after the Paris attacks which have left at least 128 dead.” (Al-Arabiya Net, 14/11/2015 Vienna – AFP).
“The German minister also said, “Although it still seems far-fetched, but that all parties gathered around the table”… For his part, Kerry said in a joint press conference in Vienna with his Russian counterpart Sergei Lavrov, and the Special UN envoy to Syria, Staffan de Mistura: The five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council agreed to issue a decision in favor of a cease-fire in Syria, and to hold elections within 18 months.”(Emirates Today, 14/11/2015).
Thus, the ongoing military actions and negotiations are continuing and all led by American to achieve both goals mentioned above:
First: To support the tyrant Bashar and prevent his fall before America finds the alternative the successor agent to the former agent, and to prevent the occurrence of a vacuum that can be filled in a way not in accordance to the American calculations…
Second: To continue with the successive pressure on the people of Syria to accept the alternative made by America from the coalition and factions that they call “moderate”, and some of the regime’s aides.
The American predicament in Syria, is that it is creating multiple alternatives, as it did in the different types of the so-called Coalition and other of its followers and tools, but all of these do not receive acceptance in the inside… Therefore it is stepping up its military actions, whether directly from it or from Iran and its party, and recently from Russia, all in an attempt to put pressure on the people of Syria to accept America’s creation as an alternative agent successor to Bashar the former agent.
Third: The expected solution in Syria:
A deeper look into the ongoing events in Syria and its related international, regional and local issues cast a light on the expected solution, as follows:
The Syrian regime is an agent of America in the era of Bashar and his father before him, and this matter does not need further explanation…
The Kaffir colonists depose of their agents once exhausted of its role and become unable to achieve their interests…
But at the same time they are keen to get an alternative agent to succeed the former agent…
And this is America’s dilemma here, the alternatives they created and the coalition is like the magician’s spell that never works.
America has failed to find the next agent to replace the current agent and it was afraid that Bashar would perish before they find an alternative, and the Muslims fill the void.
This shows that the expected solution is one of three:
– That America continues to stall negotiations in Geneva 1-2-3… Vienna 1-2-3… and its sisters… extending the period of negotiation after a month or two… and find an interim rule for a year or two… Thus, waiting for an alternative acceptable from the people and who can serve its interests, at the same time continue to support Bashar so that he does not perish before his time, through various devilish supportive means by it and its agents, and Iran and its militias, and Russia and its followers…
– To impose a rule, backed by an international force, or without it, made from its creations from the coalition and moderate factions, and declare a secular state that fights Allah and His Messenger ﷺ.
– That the sincere people come to power, the people of ash-Sham, the abode of Islam, and they stamp on the Kaffir colonialists and their creations and their secularism, and establish the rule of Islam, the righteous Khilafah, and Islam and its people become victorious, and humiliates Kufr and its people, and matters be as Al-Aziz Al-Hakim says:
“And say, “Truth has come, and falsehood has departed. Indeed is falsehood, [by nature], ever bound to depart.”
And, the people of Ash-Sham and every brother to them in Islam will prevent, by Grace of Allah and His Strength, every rule in the land of Ash-Sham, but the rule of Islam, and every flag but the flag of Al-Uqab, the banner of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ, the banner of there is no god but Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, and then purify the land of Ash-Sham from the abomination of the agents and the colonists.
Fourth: Impact of the Paris attacks and synchronization with the Vienna Conference:
As for the synchronization of the Vienna Conference and the France bombings: the conference took place just hours after the bombings, so the synchronization being intentional is ruled out or that it has an active influence in the Vienna Conference. It is only to the extent of America exploiting the attacks to make France desist from demanding to wage a war on Bashar’s regime, rather to become preoccupied with fighting what it calls terrorism far away from Bashar, who remains in his position until America finds the alternative. France opposed America in focusing the air attacks on what it calls terrorism, and not targeting the regime and now France has become focused on so-called terrorism and not the regime… All this renders America to work in knitting its threads of plots in Syria to find a secular solution hidden in its sleeve instead of the Khilafah in which the people of Ash-Sham demand. It does that and it is seen as reassuring for the survival of Bashar until it finds an alternative and fulfills its plots, and after he was supported by Iran and its party and the henchmen and followers, and finally by the support of Russia and the aversion of the threat of France on the regime.
This is on one hand and on the other hand, Obama has benefited from these attacks in improving the image of his democratic rule for the elections, it was noted that Obama’s statements supporting France in their actions against the ISIS organization and terrorism were mounting remarks! It is as if Obama wanted to appear firm in the fight against terrorism amidst the backdrop of the US election campaigns, and not, as how his Republicans opponents accuse him, that Obama’s Democrat government does not stand firmly in the face of terrorism, and this affects the electoral public opinion support for the Democrats. In this context, US Secretary of State John Kerry’s statement on Friday 13/11/2015 in Tunisia on the same day that the Paris attacks took place, said: “The days of Daesh are numbered” in his response to the killing of who is known as Jihadi John… America’s discussion about the troops that they are training and that they are achieving victories inside Syria against ISIS organization is in the same context.
And there is something that must be pointed out, it is that the West has used the Paris attacks in the “surge” against Islam, claiming that Islam was behind the killing of civilians with the knowledge that it is an established fact that the targeting of civilian non-combatants is considered as illegal from the point of view of Islam, and Islam throughout history. Since the time of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ, Islam deliberately works to protect the civilian non-combatants from the scourge of war. Islam demands the safeguarding of the vulnerable, the civilians who do not have weapons to defend themselves… and even in wars when meeting the enemy, the Messenger of Allah ﷺ used to advise the Islamic Army:
“You will find people who locked themselves up in temples, spare them and leave them for what they locked themselves up for…and do not kill the old, nor a woman, nor an infant, and do not destroy buildings.”
Omar, may Allah be pleased with him, advised his army commander:
“Do not transgress, do not betray, do not mutilate, and do not kill a woman, or a child, or an elderly.”
Thus are the Muslims even in their fight. If one of their soldiers while fighting his opponent, and the opponent’s sword fell from his hand he will desist from killing him, but rather he would wait until his opponent picked up the sword and then he kills him in pride and face-to-face… Although these are hard facts in Islam and known to the West from the history of the Muslims and their conquests, however they are taking advantage of those events to mobilize hatred against Islam and Muslims, and it is a blind hatred. Had they perpetrated the crime, and they are many, they will not stand at that but they will justify it, and if the Muslims carried out the crime, they pursue the entire Muslim community present in their country. They even attack Islam itself, as is the case these days… It is a blind hatred that will not be extinguished except after the establishment of the Khilafah, and then it will avenge every oppressed from every tyrant, and the light of the Khilafah and its goodness will spread and prevail, not only over the Muslim countries but to every living sane person in this world…
Our esteemed Sheikh, greetings blessed by Allah سبحانه وتعالى, Assalamu Alaikoum wa Rahmatullah wa Barakatuhu. My question is about the Nisab of the Zakat in trading merchandise. It was mentioned in the book, Funds in the Khilafah State (page 142-143), that the Nisab of the Zakat is 200 silver Dirhams, or 595 grams of silver, or 20 gold Dinars, or 85 grams. So, for today’s time, which of the Nisab should we rely on in our calculations for trading merchandise, while taking into consideration that there are vast differences between the price of gold and silver, as one gold Dinar is almost equal to hundreds of silver Dirhams, so if we calculate 5 gold Dinars it will over-exceed its equivalence in its Nisab in silver, so which of the Nisab should we rely on today? Baraka Allah feek and may we benefit from your knowledge.
Question by Muhammad Usman [copied as written]:
Aslamoaleikum Warahmatullah! I have a few questions regarding Zakat 1. What is the method to calculate Zakat? 2. If I possess the Nisab e.g. 120 grams of gold, will the Zakat be calculated on the gold exceeding 87.479 grams of gold or on the total i.e. 120 grams. Also what about the purity of the gold as it is available in 24 karat, 22 karat etc.? 3. If there is a total of 170 grams of gold at home, but the ownership is different that is half of it is owned by my mother and the other half by my wife, than the Zakat is still applicable as the individual owners do not have the Nisab on which Zakat is applied but the sum is? 4. I do not know the date from which the lunar year starts on the Nisab in this case how and from when to calculate Zakat?
Wa Alaikoum al Salam wa Rahmatullahi wa Baraktuh,
All of the questions revolve around the same topic, and so the answers to them will be combined together:
The Nisab of the gold is 20 Dinars which is equivalent to 85 grams of gold, and it is not what has been mentioned in the question: 87.470 grams of gold. That is because one Dinar is equal to 4.25 grams of gold, so if it were multiplied by 20 Dinars, then the Nisab would be 85 grams of gold. The Nisab for the silver is 200 Dirhams which is equal to 595 grams of silver since one Dirham weighs 2.975 grams of silver, so if it was multiplied by 200 Dirhams, the Nisab would be 595 grams of silver… The evidence for that is what has been narrated by Abu Obeid about funds from Abdullah bin Amr, may Allah be pleased with them, he said: The Prophet of Allah ﷺ said: «لَيْسَ فِي أَقَلَّ مِنْ عِشْرِينَ مِثْقَالا مِنَ الذَّهَبِ، وَلَا فِي أَقَلَّ مِنْ مِائَتَيْ دِرْهَمٍ صَدَقَةٌ»“It is neither nothing less than 20 grams of gold, nor nothing less than 200 silver Dirhams as Sadaqa”. Also what was narrated by Bukhari upon the report of Yehya bin Umara bin Abu Al-Hassan: He heard from Abu Saeed, may Allah be pleased with him, saying: The Prophet ﷺ said: «لَيْسَ فِيمَا دُونَ خَمْسِ أَوَاقٍ صَدَقَةٌ»“It is not less than 5 ounces in Sadaqa” and its amount is valued to be equal to 200 Dirhams; since each ounce is 40 Dirhams.
If the gold reached the Nisab of 85 grams or the silver reached the Nisab of 595 grams, paying Zakat for them is not obligatory until it reaches the Nisab where a year has passed over it, that is from the day the gold or silver has reached the Nisab then the counting of a year over it begins, meaning the Hijri year. So, if the money reached the Nisab in the 10th of Muharram for example, then Zakat becomes obligatory for it when the 10th of Muharram of the next Hijri year arrives… that is according to what At-Tirmidhi has narrated on the account of Ibn Umar, he said: “Whoever receives money is not obliged to pay Zakat for it until a year has passed over it at His Lord”. The amount of the obligatory Zakat in the gold and silver is the quarter of the tenth, that is from the Nisab of the silver it is 5 Dirhams, meaning 14.875 grams of silver, and from the Nisab of the gold it is half a Dinar, meaning 2.2125 grams of gold, and that is according to what has been narrated by Ibn Majah on the account of Abdullah bin Waqid, on the authority of Ibn Umar, and Aisha, that the Prophet ﷺ: «كَانَ يَأْخُذُ مِنْ كُلِّ عِشْرِينَ دِينَارًا فَصَاعِدًا نِصْفَ دِينَارٍ، وَمِنَ الْأَرْبَعِينَ دِينَارًا دِينَارًا»“Used to take from every 20 Dinars and more a half of a Dinar, and from 40 Dinars a whole Dinar”. Still, when At-Tirmidhi narrated it on the account of Ali, he said: The Prophet of Allah ﷺ: ” «فَهَاتُوا صَدَقَةَ الرِّقَةِ: مِنْ كُلِّ أَرْبَعِينَ دِرْهَمًا دِرْهَمًا، وَلَيْسَ فِي تِسْعِينَ وَمِائَةٍ شَيْءٌ، فَإِذَا بَلَغَتْ مِائَتَيْنِ فَفِيهَا خَمْسَةُ دَرَاهِمَ». “Bring the Sadaqa with tenderness: from every 40 Dirhams a whole Dirham, and there is nothing upon the 190 Dirhams, but if it reached 200 Dirhams, then there should be 5 Dirhams”.
As we have mentioned earlier, Zakat is obligatory on the gold and silver if they have reached the Nisab and this Nisab passed a year over it, and the Zakat is paid from the whole amount and not only what has surpassed the Nisab. So, whoever owns for example 170 grams of gold and a year has passed over it, then he will need to pay the Zakat of the 170 grams which is the quarter of the tenth of the amount. That is: 4.25 grams of gold or pay a whole Dinar, and he doesn’t pay only for the 85 grams surpassing the Nisab, meaning that he doesn’t bring out only 2.2125 grams of gold or half a Dinar… The situation is the same for the silver, as it is obligatory to pay the quarter of the tenth on the whole amount as long as it has reached the Nisab and a year has passed over it.
The Hukm (rule) of the Zakat on gold specified for pure gold of 24 karats, as well as the Hukm of the Zakat on the silver specified for pure silver, if the gold was mixed with other substances or the silver was mixed with other substances, the weight of those other substances is subtracted according to its amount, where whatever has remained after the subtraction has reached the Nisab. So, if a person owned 85 grams of 18 karat gold, it would not have reached the Nisab because the amount of pure gold in it is less than 85 grams… The Zakat on a block of gold of 24 karats is different from a block of the same weight and of 18 karats, and the pure gold when accounting for the Nisab would make the Nisab of the gold of 24 karats 85 grams, but the Nisab of the gold of 18 karats would be more than that because it is mixed with materials other than gold being a quarter of the amount. Therefore, the gold of 18 karats has pure gold in it equal to ¾ of the gold of 24 karats, and upon that the Nisab of the gold of 18 karats is 1 and 1/3 of the Nisab of the pure gold which is 113.33 grams. Upon that, whoever owning 85 grams of pure gold of 24 karats would have reached the Nisab, so if a year has passed over it, he will need to pay the Zakat of 2.5% of its weight, but the one who owns 85 grams of gold of 18 karats has not reached the Nisab until what he owns reaches 113.33 grams, and if a year has passed over it, then he has to pay the Zakat of 2.5% of its weight, and it is clear here that the meaning behind the Zakat is on pure gold.
The Zakat is an individual ritual (Ibada) which is not obligatory on the money of the Muslim until it has reached the Nisab, so if a man owns 60 grams of gold and his wife owns, for example, 60 grams of gold, then there is no Zakat on neither his money or her money, even if the total of which they have together has surpassed the Nisab. It is only when the money of either one of them only has reached the Nisab, then the Zakat becomes obligatory on the money that has reached the Nisab. So, if the money of the husband has reached for example and he came to own 120 grams of gold, then he is obliged to pay the Zakat on his money, and he doesn’t combine his wife’s money; the 60 grams of gold.
If the money qualified for Zakat is paper currency, or trading merchandise, it is considered either Nisabs that is either the Nisab of the gold or the Nisab of the silver. However, if both Nisabs differ such as what is happening nowadays where the Nisab of the silver is very less in value than the Nisab of the gold, what I see if that the estimation shall happen with the least of the Nisabs, meaning the Nisab of the silver and not the gold. I say the least of the Nisabs because if the Nisab reached the lowest then it became qualified for Zakat and it is prohibited to bypass it in order to wait for the higher Nisab. He shall rather record the date when it qualified for Zakat, then after one year passing, he should pay the Zakat, as the Zakat is a right for the poor and the needy… ﴿إِنَّمَا الصَّدَقَاتُ لِلْفُقَرَاءِ وَالْمَسَاكِينِ…﴾ “Zakat are only for the poor and the needy…” [At-Tawba: 60], ﴿وَالَّذِينَ فِي أَمْوَالِهِمْ حَقٌّ مَعْلُومٌ * لِلسَّائِلِ وَالْمَحْرُومِ﴾ “And those in whose wealth there is a known right * For the needy and the deprived” [Al-Ma’arij: 23-24], and the Prophet ﷺ said: «فَأَعْلِمْهُمْ أَنَّ اللَّهَ افْتَرَضَ عَلَيْهِمْ صَدَقَةً فِي أَمْوَالِهِمْ تُؤْخَذُ مِنْ أَغْنِيَائِهِمْ وَتُرَدُّ عَلَى فُقَرَائِهِمْ»“And inform them that Allah has mandated upon them a Sadaqa (charity) from their money which is taken from their rich and given back to the poor.” (Narrated by Bukhari). Upon this, it is the benefit of the rightful owner that is taken into consideration, and based on that the Nisab is calculated based on the lesser amount, meaning that it is calculated for the Nisab of the silver.
As for the method of calculating the Zakat, when the money reaches the Nisab the year count starts, so if the money reached its Nisab on the 10th of Muharram of the year 1437 AH, then paying Zakat on it becomes obligatory on the 10th of Muharram of the next Hijri year of 1438 AH. If the amount money has increased, it will join the previous amount and are counted as together when a year has passed over it. For example, if a person owned 100 grams of gold starting from the 10th of Muharram of the year 1437 AH, then used this gold in a trade where he gained an additional 150 grams until the 10th of Muharram of the next Hijri year 1438 AH, he must pay the Zakat of 250 grams of gold because the new money is the result of the old money, and so the rule is applicable to it… However, if new money was gained after the 10th of Muharram of the year 1437 AH without it being earned from the previous money, such as being gifted to him or he inherited it, then this new money has its own year to pass over it. So, if he owned it for example on the 10th of Shaban of the year 1437 AH, then he must pay Zakat for it on the 10thof Shaban of the year 1438 AH and not on the 10th of Muharram in the year 1438 AH because the date accounted for both monies are different…
Since it is allowed to hasten in paying the Zakat before a year has passed, it is allowed to pay the Zakat on the 10th of Muharram for the original Nisab and to hasten paying the Zakat of the money that was gifted or inherited on the 10th of Muharram instead of waiting until the 10th of Shaaban. As for hastening the Zakat, there are several Sharia evidence, some of which are:
Al-Bayhaqi mentioned in As-Sunan Al-Kubra on the account of Ali: “Al-Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, asked the Prophet of Allah ﷺ about hastening (the payment of) his Sadaqa before a year has passed over it, and he ﷺ gave him permission to do that.”
Ad-Darkatni mentioned in his Sunan on the account of Hujur Al-A’dawi on the account of Ali, he said: The Prophet of Allah ﷺ told to Umar: «إِنَّا قَدْ أَخَذْنَا مِنَ الْعَبَّاسِ زَكَاةَ الْعَامِ عَامِ الْأَوَّلِ»“We have taken from Al-Abbas the Zakat of this year at the beginning of the year.”
Based on that, you can do the following to your money regarding the Zakat:
Jot down the Hijri date when your money reaches the Nisab.
After a whole Hijri year has passed, calculate how much money you have to see if it reaches the Nisab or not.
Pay the Zakat of all this money that you have and not only of that which surpassed the Nisab, but rather the whole amount, meaning the Nisab and whatever surpassed it.
After that, you calculate your money every year in this date and pay Zakat on them all if it has reached the Nisab or more.
If a person forgets the date of his money reaching Nisab, then he should estimate and take into consideration when making the estimate the interest of the beneficiaries of the Zakat because they have a right in receiving this money which has more priority over his right even though he is the owner of this money… Therefore, if his estimation is somewhere between the months of Muharram and Shabaan, let him make the beginning of the year at the beginning of the month of Muharram and not the month of Shabaan, as this is better for him in his Deen, bi’thinallah.
Ata Bin Khalil Abu Al-Rashtah
02 Safar 1437 AH
The link to the answer from the Ameer’s Facebook page: